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Summary of the History of Italian language

Between the third and fifth century AD. C. the progressive decay of the Roman Empire made more difficult as the hand movement of the Latin in the territories of Romània. If the written language was still long and wherever the classical Latin, the speech became less differing from the official language. Already in the third century, a school teacher, probably Roman, urged against the deviations of spoken Latin or the vernacular, to employ oculus not oclus (= eye), vetulus not veclus (= old), viridis not virdis (= green). The barbarian invasions and the collapse of the Roman Empire of the West (476 AD) brought the final crushing linguistic unit in Italy, both because the invaders, that although they had learned Latin, spoke it in their own way, and because some peculiarities they penetrated in the Roman language spoken in Italy. This is the case for example of different words of Lombard origin ( tuft, scratching, cheek, rich, joke, back, fang, mane ) that were introduced in the Italian lexicon through spoken Latin. We highly recommend our Italian Translation Services for your business.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Latin remained a long time in Italy the only language used in written communication, the only one to be used in literature and in official documents.

brief summary of the history of the Italian language - medieval Latin document

The first written documents in which the vernacular is used consciously are four placiti (ie sentences) found in Cassino, dating back to 960.

One of them reads:

"Sao ko kelle lands for purposes kelle que ki CONTAINS thirty years Possette of St. Benedict " (= I know those lands within those boundaries that are described here, has held for thirty years the Abbey of St. Benedict) .

The vulgar written language, from which he originated the Italian translation and indeed the Italian language, however, says only in the '200, when it is also used in literary texts. Of 1224 is the famous Canticle of St. Francis of Assisi, written in the vernacular Umbrian, of which we quote some verses:

Altissimu, onnipotente, bon Signore,

tue so’ le laude, la gloria, e l’honore et onne benedictione.

Ad te solo, Altissimo, se konfano,

et nullu homo ène dignu te mentovare.

Laudato sie, mi’ Signore, cum tucte le tue creature,

spetialmente messor lo frate sole,

lo qual’è iorno, et allumini noi per lui.

Et ellu è bellu e radiante cum grande splendore:

de te, Altissimo, porta significatione.

In this document they followed the lyrics of the Sicilian poets of Frederick II's court. They are inspired by the Provencal troubadours (initiators in France of a poem in a literary language neolatina later disappeared: the Provencal), and founded a real school of poetry in the vernacular. The poetry of the Sicilian was so successful that it is immediately imitated in Tuscany, particularly from the Dolce Stil Novo writers.

During the thirteenth century the literary language handwriting is still quite uncertain, and has quite a few fluctuations. The k for example is often present as an alternative with c , the link - gn - is reproduced in different ways ( bath but also bango, Bangna, Bannio, etc.). Still survives in many cases h etymological Latin ( homo, honor ). The Latin script is maintained even in conjunction et . Among the items predominates him ( the who, the monk ). Next to the Tuscan conditional in - and appears in poems that in -ia released by the Sicilian school of poetry ( saria = would, diviria = should).

In the lexicon come many Frenchified, primarily related to the life of chivalry and war ( sir, knight, squire, damsel, Madame, hostage, pennant ).

Luck of the poetry of the troubadours brings to the affirmation of many Provençal words ( craft, shame, thinking, lie down, donneare ). The Arabs (who are present in Sicily from 827 to 1091 and who have frequent trade with the maritime cities) must instead entering the peninsula of Eastern terms, especially the nautical sector, business and science, as a warehouse , customs, dockyard, arsenal, price, Admiral, zenith, nadir, algebra, number, zero, still, syrup, orange, apricot, artichoke and saffron

The twentieth century completes in almost complete so the spread of the Italian language at the expense of the dialects. Illiteracy, especially for the increased schooling and for the work of the mass media, it always reduces more. After that of prose, even the language of poetry, with the experiences of the Futurists and Hermetic, is freed definitively from the metric and formal ties of tradition.

The handwriting of italian translation and morphology have now reached a remarkable stability. In the syntax they are spreading the example of journalistic style, the nominal phrases, that is, without the verb ( Bellissima the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games).

In the lexicon the most obvious phenomenon is the huge influx of anglicisms, given the great prestige achieved in the scientific, technological and economic from English-speaking countries, especially overseas ( babysitting, bestseller, blue jeans, horn, computer, guard rail, hostess, jeeps, killer, pullovers, quizzes, rock, self service, spray, stop, supermarket, weekend ).

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